Blood gas book
Lippincott Williams
& Wilkins

What's New in Blood Gas Interpretation

Lawrence Martin, M.D.


(In alphabetical order)

Ayas N, Bergstrom LR, Schwab TR, et al. Unrecognized severe postoperative hypercapnia: A case of apneic oxygenation. Mayo Clin Proc 1998;73:51-54.

Barker SJ, Tremper KK. The effect of carbon monoxide inhalation on pulse oximetry and transcutaneous PO2. Anesthesiology 1987;66:677-79.

Barker SJ, Tremper KK, Hyatt J. Effects of methemoglobinemia on pulse oximetry and mixed venous oximetry. Anesthesiology 1989;70:112-17.

Clark JS, Votteri B, Ariagno R, et al. Noninvasive assessment of blood gases: State of the art. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992;145: 220-232.

Coté CJ, Goldstein A, Fuchsman WH, et al. The effect of nail polish on pulse oximetry. Anesth Analg 1988;67:683-86.

Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association. The Use of pulse oximetry during conscious sedation. JAMA 1993; 270:1463-1468.

Davidson JAH, Hosie HE. Limitations of pulse oximetry: respiratory insufficiency--a failure of detection. Brit Med J 1993;307:372-73.

Eisenkraft JB. Pulse oximeter desaturation due to methemo-globinemia. Anesthesiology 1988;68:279-82.

Emmett M, Narins RG. Clinical use of the anion gap. Medicine (Baltimore) 1977;56:38-54.

Ernst A, Zibrak JD. Carbon monoxide poisoning. New Engl J Medicine 1998;339:1603-8.

Gabow PA, Kaehny WD, Fennessy PV, et al. Diagnostic importance of an increased serum anion gap. N Engl J Med 1980; 303:854-58.

Gabow PA (principal discussant). Disorders associated with an altered anion gap. Kidney Int 1985;27:472-83.

Haber RJ. A practical approach to acid-base disorders. West J Med 1991;155:146-151.

Hanning CD, Alexander-Williams JM. Pulse oximetry: a practical review. Brit Med J 1995;311:367-70.

Hatle L, Rokseth R. The arterial to end-expiratory carbon dioxide tension gradient in acute pulmonary embolism and other cardiopulmonary diseases. Chest 1974;66:352-57.

Hutton P, Clutton-Brock T. The benefits and pitfalls of pulse oximetry. Brit Med J 1993;307:457-58.

Isserles S, Breen PH. Can changes in end-tidal PCO2 measure changes in cardiac output? Anesth Analg 1991;73:808-14.

Leasa DJ. Noninvasive blood gas monitoring: a review of the use in the adult critical care unit. Technology subcommittee of the working group on critical care. Canad Med Assoc J 1992;146: 703-712.

Lindberg LG, Lennmarken C, Vegfors M. Pulse oximetry -- clinical implications and recent technical developments. Acta Anaesth Scand 1995;39:279-87.

Martin L. All You Really Need to Know to Interpret Arterial Blood Gases. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999.

Moorthy SS, Losasso AM, Wilcox J. End-tidal PCO2 greater than PaCO2. Chest 1984;12: 534-535.

Narins RG, Emmett M. Simple and mixed acid-base disorders: A practical approach. Medicine (Baltimore) 1980;59:161-87.

Oh MS, Carroll HJ. The anion gap. NEJM 1977; page 814.

Oster JR, Perez GO, Materson BJ. Use of the anion gap in clinical medicine. South Med J 1988;81:229-37.

Paulson WD, Gadallah MF. Diagnosis of mixed acid-base disorders in diabetic ketoacidosis. Am J Med Sci 1993;306:295-300.

Pilon CS, Leathley M, London R, et al. Practice guidelines for arterial blood gas measurement in the intensive care unit decreases numbers and increases appropriateness of tests. Crit Care Med 1997;25:1308-13.

Raemer DN, Elliott WR, Topulos G, et al. The theoretical effect of carboxyhemoglobin on the pulse oximeter. J Clin Monit 1989;5:246-49.

Ralston AC, Webb RK, Runciman WB. Potential errors in pulse oximetry. III: Effects of interference, dyes, dyshaemoglobins and other pigments. Anaesthesia 1991;46:291-95.

Ries AL, Prewitt LM, Johnson JJ. Skin color and ear oximetry. Chest 1998;96:287-90.

Sadjadi SA. A new range for the anion gap. Annals Intern Medicine 1995;123:807.

Schnapp LM, Cohen NH. Pulse oximetry: Uses and abuses. Chest 1990;98:1244-50.

Severinghaus JW, Kelleher JF. Recent developments in pulse oximetry. Anesthesiology 1992;76:1018-38.

Severinghaus JW, Astrup P, Murray JF. Blood gas analysis and critical care medicine. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 1998;157:S114 -S122.

Stock MC. Capnography for adults. Crit Care Clinics 1995; 11:219-232.

Stoneham MD, Saville GM, Wilson IH. Knowledge about pulse oximetry among medical and nursing staff. The Lancet 1994;344:1339-42.

Veyckemans F, Baele P, Guillaume JE, et al. Hyperbilirubinemia does not interfere with hemoglobin saturation measured by pulse oximetry. Anesthesiology 1989;70:118-122.

Wahr JA, Tremper KK. Noninvasive oxygen monitoring techniques. Crit Care Clinics 1995;11:199-217.

Watcha MF, Connor MT, Hing AV. Pulse oximetry in met-hemoglobinemia. Am J Dis Child 1989;143:845-47.

Weil MH, Rackow EC, Trevino R, et al. Difference in acid-base state between venous and arterial blood during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. N Engl J Med 1986;315:153-156.

Winter SD, Pearson JR, Gabow PA, et al. The fall of the serum anion gap. Arch Intern Med 1990;150:311-313.

Wrenn K. The delta gap: An approach to mixed acid-base disorders. Annals Emerg Med 1990;19:1310-1313.

Wright SW. Conscious sedation in the emergency department: The value of capnography and pulse oximetry. Ann Emerg Med 1992;21: 93-97.

Zeballos RJ, Weisman IM. Reliability of noninvasive oximetry in black subjects during exercise and hypoxia. Am Rev Resp Dis 1991;144:1240-44.

Zimmerman JL, Dellinger RP. Blood gas monitoring. Crit Care Clinics 1996;12:865-74.

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