Lawrence Martin, M.D., FACP, FCCP
Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine
Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
Cleveland, Ohio

ABG book


1. Martin L. Pulmonary Physiology in Clinical Practice. C.V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, 1987.

2. Wasserman K, Whipp BJ. Exercise physiology in health and disease: State of the Art. Amer Rev Resp Dis 1975;112:219-49.

3. Flenly DC. Another non-logarithmic acid-base diagram? The Lancet 1971;1:691-65.

4. McCurdy DK. Mixed metabolic and respiratory acid-base disturbances: diagnosis and treatment. Chest 1972;62:35S-44S.

5. Goldberg M, Green S, Moss ML, et al. Computer-based instruction and diagnosis of acid-base disorders. JAMA 1973;223:269-75.

6. Arbus GS. An in-vivo acid-base nomogram for clinical use. CMA Jour 1973;291-2.

7. Fulop M, Fulop M. Acid-base diagrams. Maths, myths and measurements. The Lancet 1974;2:637-9.

8. Worthly LIG. A diagram to facilitate the understanding and therapy of mixed acid-base disorders. Anaesth Intens Care 1976;4:245-53.

9. Winters RW. Terminology of acid-base disorders. Ann Intern Med 1965;63:873-84.

10. Statement on acid-base terminology. Report of the ad hoc committee of the New York Academy of Sciences Conference, November 23-24, 1964. Ann Intern Med 1965;63:885-90

11. Brackett NC Jr, Cohen JJ, Schwartz WB. Carbon dioxide titration curve of normal man. New Engl J Med 1965;272:6-12

12. Arbus GS, Hebert LA, Levesque PR, et al. Characterization and clinical application of the žsignificance bandž for acute respiratory alkalosis. New Engl J Med 1969;280:117-23.

13. Asch MJ, Dell RB, Williams GS, Cohen M, Winters RW. Time course for development of respiratory compensation in metabolic acidosis. J Lab and Clin Med 1969;73:610-15.

14. Pierce NF, Fedson DS, Brigham KL, Mitra RC, et al. The ventilator response to acute acid-base deficit in humans. Ann Intern Med 1970;72:633-40.

15. Javaheri S. Compensatory hypoventilation in metabolic alkalosis. Chest 1982;81:296-301.

16. Javaheri S, Kazemi H. Metabolic alkalosis and hypoventilation in humans. Amer Rev Respir Dis 1987:136;1011-1016.

17. Narins RG, Emmett M. Simple and mixed acid-base disorders: A practical approach. Medicine (Baltimore) 1980;59:161-87.

18. Bradstetter RD, Tamarin FM, Washington D, et al. Occult mucous airway obstruction in diabetic ketoacidosis. Chest 1987;91:575-578.

19. Gabow PA, Kaehny WD, Fennessy PV, et al. Diagnostic importance of an increased serum anion gap. New Engl J Med 1980;303:854-58.

20. Gabow PA (principal discussant). Disorders associated with an altered anion gap. Kidney Int 1985;27:472-83.

21. Oster JR, Perez GO, Materson BJ. Use of the anion gap in clinical medicine. South Med J 1988;81:229-237.

22. Martin L. Abbreviating the alveolar gas equation. An argument for simplicity. Respir Care 1986;31:40-44.

23. Harris EA, Kenyon AM, Nisbet HD, et al. The normal alveolar-arterial oxygen tension gradient in man. Clin Sci Mol Med 1974;46:89-104.

24. West JB, Hackett PH, Maret KH, et al. Pulmonary gas exchange on the summit of Mount Everest. J Appl Physiol 55:678-87, 1983.

25. Dantzker, DR. Cardiopulmonary Critical Care. Grune & Stratton, Orlando, 1986; page 39.

26. Lundsgaard C, Van Slyke DD. Cyanosis. Medicine 1923;2:1-76.

27. Martin L and Khalil H. How much reduced hemoglobin is necessary to generate central cyanosis? Chest 1990;97:182-85.

28. Hampson NB. Arterial oxygenation in carbon monoxide poisoning (Letter). Chest 1990;98:1538-9.

29. Gothgen IH, Siggaard-Andersen O, Kokholm G. Variations in the hemoglobin- oxygen dissociation curve in 10079 arterial blood samples. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1990;50 (Suppl) 203:87-90.

30. Barker SJ, Tremper KK. The effect of carbon monoxide inhalation on pulse oximetry and transcutaneous PO2. Anesthesiology 1987;66:677-79.

31. Raemer DN, Elliott WR, Topulos G, et al. The theoretical effect of carboxyhemoglobin on the pulse oximeter. J Clin Monit 1989;5:246-249.

32. Ralston AC, Webb RK, Runciman WB. Potential errors in pulse oximetry. III: Effects of interferences, dyes, dyshaemoglobins and other pigments. Anaesthesia 1991;46:291-5.

33. Powers SK, Dodd S, Freeman J, Ayers GD, Samson H, McKnight T. Accuracy of pulse oximetry to estimate HbO2 fraction of total Hb during exercise. J Appl Physiol 1989;67:300-304.

34. Principles of Pulse Oximetry. Clinical Monograph. Nellcor Corp., Pleasanton, CA, 1991.

35. Eisenkraft JB. Pulse oximeter desaturation due to methemoglobinemia. Anesthesiology 1988;68:279-82.

36. Barker SJ, Tremper KK, Hyatt J. Effects of methemoglobinemia on pulse oximetry and mixed venous oximetry. Anesthesiology 1989;70:112-17.

37. Watcha MF, Connor MT, Hing AV. Pulse oximetry in methemoglobinemia. Amer J Dis Child 1989;143:845-47.

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Copyright © 1996-2009 Lawrence Martin, M.D.